When writing a research paper you are, by definition, drawing upon the works of earlier writers. To present another writer’s work as your own is known as plagiarism, which is to say, “kidnapping” of another person’s work. Plagiarism is morally and ethically wrong, and must be avoided. This is not to say that you must not quote another writer or cite his understanding of the subject discussed in your paper. On the contrary, you must cite other authorities in order to support your work, but when you do so, you must give proper credit to your source.
There are various methods for citing works. At Heritage we are standardizing upon the method found in the MLA Style Manual by Joseph Gibaldi. Since this book is being cited, it is listed as the first example in the sample bibliography that follows.
Entries should be listed alphabetically by author’s last name. Because the sample entries below are arranged by type of publication, no effort has been made to arrange them alphabetically.
The following examples and explanations are by no means exhaustive, but they should cover the type of works that Heritage students are likely to cite in their research papers.
Citing a book by a single author
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 2nd ed. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1998
Citing multiple books by a single author
Cite the name only in the first entry. Thereafter, place three hyphens, then a comma where the author’s name would ordinarily appear. Multiple works by a single author are alphabetized by title.
Shute, Nevil. No Highway. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1948.
—, Pastoral. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1944.
Citing a book by more than one author
To cite a book by more than one author, place their names in the same order they are found on the title page. (NB, this will not always be in alphabetical order.) Only reverse the name of the first author, add a comma, and give the remaining name or names in the normal form. Also, place a period after the final name.
Andersch, Elizabeth G., and Lorin C. Staats. Rev. ed. Speech for Everyday Use. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960.
When citing a newspaper article, follow the format listed below, wherein the article itself is in quotes, the name of the newspaper is underlined, the date the article appeared is listed, together with the edition (since different editions contain different information) and the page number. In the example below “A2” refers to section “A” and page “2”.
Wilson, Wilbur. “Attack Sub Sinks Fishing Boat.” Cincinnati Enquirer 14 Feb. 2001, late ed. : A2.
A citation for a magazine article is similar to a citation for a newspaper article except that the date of the magazine will differ due to the different frequencies at which magazines are published. For example, some are weekly publications, some are published monthly, and others at still different intervals. The following are citations for imaginary articles to use as a guideline. (Note that the last item is the page number. If the article is not printed on consecutive pages, simply include the starting page with a plus sign after it.)
Johnson, Amy. “Navy Investigates Sinking of Japanese Fishing Boat.” Newsweek 18 Feb. 2001: 24+.
Sims, Anthony. “Incompetence at Sea.” Military Review July-Aug. 2001: 88-96.
Articles Found on the Internet
No more two of the sources for research papers may be Internet sources, but when citing Internet sources, it should be done in the following manner. (NB, the first date in the citation is the date of publication, the second date is the date accessed.) Since there is no standard system for web site listing like there is for more traditional publications, you may not be able to provide all of this information, but you should do your best to include as much of it as possible.
National Transportation Library. Xuao Chu Center for Urban Transportation Research. Oct. 1994. U of South Florida. 10 Apr. 2002 <http://ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/t-95.html>.